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Subatomic quantification

Subatomic quantification PDF Author: Marcin Wągiel
Publisher: Language Science Press
ISBN: 3961103151
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages : 334
Book Description
The goal of this book is to explore the relationship between the cognitive notion of parthood and various grammatical devices expressing this concept in natural language. The monograph aims to investigate syntactic constructions and lexical categories, e.g., partitives, whole-adjectives, and multipliers, encoding different kinds of part-whole structures both in Slavic and non-Slavic languages. It is envisioned to inspire radical rethinking of the ontology of models accounting for nominal semantics. Specifically, it provides novel evidence for a mereotopological approach to meaning, i.e., a theory of wholes that captures not only parthood but also topological relations holding between parts. This evidence comes from the phenomenon of subatomic quantification, i.e., quantification over parts of referents of concrete count nouns.

Subatomic quantification

Subatomic quantification PDF Author: Marcin Wągiel
Publisher: Language Science Press
ISBN: 3961103151
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages : 334
Book Description
The goal of this book is to explore the relationship between the cognitive notion of parthood and various grammatical devices expressing this concept in natural language. The monograph aims to investigate syntactic constructions and lexical categories, e.g., partitives, whole-adjectives, and multipliers, encoding different kinds of part-whole structures both in Slavic and non-Slavic languages. It is envisioned to inspire radical rethinking of the ontology of models accounting for nominal semantics. Specifically, it provides novel evidence for a mereotopological approach to meaning, i.e., a theory of wholes that captures not only parthood but also topological relations holding between parts. This evidence comes from the phenomenon of subatomic quantification, i.e., quantification over parts of referents of concrete count nouns.

Majority Quantification and Quantity Superlatives

Majority Quantification and Quantity Superlatives PDF Author: Carmen Dobrovie-Sorin
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198791240
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages : 305
Book Description
This book investigates the syntax and semantics of proportional most and other majority quantifiers across languages. Carmen Dobrovie-Sorin and Ion Giurgea draw on data from around 40 languages to demonstrate the existence of two distinct semantic types of most: a distributive type, which compares cardinalities of sets of atoms, and a cumulative type, which involves measuring plural and mass entities with respect to a whole. On the syntactic side, the most significant difference is between partitive and non-partitive configurations: certain majority quantifiers are specific to partitive constructions, while others are also allowed in non-partitives. The volume also explores complex expressions of the type the largest part and nominal quantifiers of the type the majority. The authors argue in favour of a quantificational analysis of most, in contrast to many recent studies, but adopt a bipartition-cum-superlative analysis for the largest part. The volume is a large-scale crosslinguistic investigation, offering typological insights as well as case studies from a range of languages, including German, Romanian, Hungarian, Hindi, and Syrian Arabic. The findings have implications for the study of number marking, partitivity, kind reference, (in)definiteness marking, and other crucial issues in linguistic theory.

Formal approaches to number in Slavic and beyond

Formal approaches to number in Slavic and beyond PDF Author: Mojmír Dočekal
Publisher: Language Science Press
ISBN: 3961103143
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages : 506
Book Description
The goal of this collective monograph is to explore the relationship between the cognitive notion of number and various grammatical devices expressing this concept in natural language with a special focus on Slavic. The book aims at investigating different morphosyntactic and semantic categories including plurality and number-marking, individuation and countability, cumulativity, distributivity and collectivity, numerals, numeral modifiers and classifiers, as well as other quantifiers. It gathers 19 contributions tackling the main themes from different theoretical and methodological perspectives in order to contribute to our understanding of cross-linguistic patterns both in Slavic and non-Slavic languages.

Aspect, Eventuality Types and Nominal Reference

Aspect, Eventuality Types and Nominal Reference PDF Author: Hana Filip
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136801162
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages : 322
Book Description
First published in 1999. This book examines the interplay between the semantics of noun phrases and verbal predicates, with an emphasis on data drawn from Czech and English, and comparisons to German and Finnish. This book will be of interest to a wide range of linguists concerned with aspect and how it interacts with lexical semantics, morphology, syntax and quantification.

When Minoritized Languages Change Linguistic Theory

When Minoritized Languages Change Linguistic Theory PDF Author: Andrew Nevins
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1009034278
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages : 211
Book Description
For decades, a small set of major world languages have formed the basis of the vast majority of linguistic theory. However, minoritized languages can also provide fascinating contributions to our understanding of the human language faculty. This pioneering book explores the transformative effect minoritized languages have on mainstream linguistic theory, which, with their typically unusual syntactic, morphological and phonological properties, challenge and question frameworks that were developed largely to account for more widely-studied languages. The chapters address the four main pillars of linguistic theory – syntax, semantics, phonology, and morphology – and provide plenty of case studies to show how minoritized language can disrupt assumptions, and lead to modifications of the theory itself. It is illustrated with examples from a range of languages, and is written in an engaging and accessible style, making it essential reading for both students and researchers of theoretical syntax, phonology and morphology, and language policy and politics.

Language, Form, and Logic

Language, Form, and Logic PDF Author: Peter Ludlow
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192677632
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 352
Book Description
This book takes an idea first explored by medieval logicians 800 years ago and revisits it armed with the tools of contemporary linguistics, logic, and computer science. The idea - the Holy Grail of the medieval logicians - was the thought that all of logic could be reduced to two very simple rules that are sensitive to logical polarity (for example, the presence and absence of negations). Ludlow and Živanović pursue this idea and show how it has profound consequences for our understanding of the nature of human inferential capacities. They also show its consequences for some of the deepest issues in contemporary linguistics, including the nature of quantification, puzzles about discourse anaphora and pragmatics, and even insights into the source of aboutness in natural language. The key to their enterprise is a formal relation they call "p-scope" - a polarity-sensitive relation that controls the operations that can be carried out in their Dynamic Deductive System. They show that with p-scope in play, deductions can be carried out using sublogical operations like those they call COPY and PRUNE - operations that are simple syntactic operations on sentences. They prove that the resulting deductive system is complete and sound. The result is a beautiful formal tapestry in which p-scope unlocks important properties of natural language, including the property of "restrictedness," which they prove to be equivalent to the semantic notion of conservativity. More than that, they show that restrictedness is also a key to understanding quantification and discourse anaphora, and many other linguistic phenomena.

On Shell Structure

On Shell Structure PDF Author: Richard K. Larson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113411382X
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages : 496
Book Description
This volume collects together core papers by Richard K. Larson developing what has since come to be known as the "VP Shell" or "Split VP" analysis of sentential structure. The volume includes five previously published papers together with two major unpublished works from the same period: "Light Predicate Raising" (1989), which explores the interesting consequences of a leftward raising analysis of "NP Shift" phenomena, and "The Projection of DP (and DegP)" (1991), which extends the shell approach to the projection of nominal and adjectival structure, showing how projection can be handled in a uniform way. In addition to published, unpublished and limited distribution work, the volume includes extensive new introductory material. The general introduction traces the conceptual roots of VP Shells and its problems in the face of subsequent developments in theory, and offers an updated form compatible with modern Minimalist syntactic analysis. The section introductions to the material on datives, complex predicates and nominals show how the updated form of shell theory applies in the empirical domains where it was originally developed.

The Oxford Handbook of Grammatical Number

The Oxford Handbook of Grammatical Number PDF Author: Patricia Cabredo Hofherr
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198795858
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages : 793
Book Description
This volume offers detailed accounts of current research in grammatical number in language. Following a detailed introduction, the chapters in the first three parts of the book explore the multiple research questions in the field and the complex problems surrounding the analysis of grammatical number: Part I presents the background and foundational notions, Part II the morphological, semantic, and syntactic aspects, and Part III the different means of expressing plurality in the event domain. The final part offers fifteen case studies that include in-depth discussion of grammatical number phenomena in a range of typologically diverse languages, written by - or in collaboration with - native speakers linguists or based on extensive fieldwork. The volume draws on work from a range of subdisciplines - including morphology, syntax, semantics, and psycholinguistics - and will be a valuable resource for students and scholars in all areas of theoretical, descriptive, and experimental linguistics.

Controlled Natural Language

Controlled Natural Language PDF Author: Michael Rosner
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 364231175X
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 195
Book Description
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Controlled Natural Language, CNL 2010, held in Marettimo Island, Italy, in September 2010. The 9 revised papers presented in this volume, together with 1 tutorial, were carefully reviewed and selected from 17 initial submissions. They broadly cover the field of controlled natural language, stressing theoretical and practical aspects of CNLs, relations to other knowledge representation languages, tool support, and applications.

Clitics in the wild

Clitics in the wild PDF Author: Zrinka Kolaković
Publisher: Language Science Press
ISBN: 3961103364
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages : 484
Book Description
This collective monograph is the first data-oriented, empirical in-depth study of the system of clitics on Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian. It fills the gap between the theoretical and normative literature by including solid data on variation found in dialects and spoken language and obtained from massive Web Corpora and speakers’ acceptability judgements. The authors investigate three primary sources of variation: inventory, placement and morphonological processes. A separate part of the book is dedicated to the phenomenon of clitic climbing, the major challenge for any syntactic theory. The theory of complexity serves as the explanation for the very diverse constraints on clitic climbing established in the empirical studies. It allows to construct a series of hierarchies where the factors relevant for predicting clitic climbing interact with each other. Thus, the study pushes our understanding of clitics away from fine-grained descriptions and syntactic generalisations towards a probabilistic modelling of syntax.